Maps are drawn by special artists who simplify the landscape into a smaller scale picture using symbols. They are made from studying aerial and satellite images of places
example of a map (with a river going into the sea near a coastal settlement)
Maps allow people to:
Most maps point in the direction of North and show this by including a compass in the corner:
Most maps contain labels that name the: countries, settlements, roads and water bodies which are shown.
definition of map symbols
Some maps are divided up into grid squares. People can share grid references to help tell others where to find a place on a map.
Some maps have contour lines printed on them which join up all the places that are at the same height above sea level. They can be used to see how the height and shape of the land surface changes:
V-shaped valleys and hill example. - types of slope: steady, concave, convex
Mapping the Earth
A globe is a model of the Earth whereas maps show the Earth's surface as a flat sheet.
Lines drawn on a globe, called lines of latitude and longitude help you find where places are:
If you want to find a place on the globe, you will need to look up its latitude and longitude. For example, Madrid, in Spain, is 40oN, 3oW. This means it is 40o north of the Equator and 3o west of the Prime Meridian.