The average temperature in Brazil is about 25oC because it is near the Equator.
The country has a varied landscape:
- Over 2,000 different types of trees grow in the wet, hot conditions of the rainforests which cover nearly half of the country. The Amazon rainforest is made up of thousands of species of plants and animals and thousands of insects – it is thought to be the most diverse ecosystem in the world.
- The centre of the country is made up of tropical grasslands with some trees and shrubs. The land is known as the Cerrado, where the typical climate is hot and semi-humid with a dry winter season from May to October.
- Towards the west of the country is a flat, swampy area called the Pantanal, a flat, swampy area called the Pantanal. This patchwork of flooded lagoons and small islands is the largest wetland in the world.
- The north-east of Brazil is known as Caatinga and is a semi-desert region. There are two seasons: one hot and dry and the other hot and wet. During the dry winter periods there is no plant growth. The drought usually ends in December or January, when the rainy season starts. Immediately after the first rains, the grey, desert-like landscape starts to transform and becomes completely green within a few days.
- South-eastern Brazil used to be covered by dense forest but this has been cleared and the area is now home to Brazil’s biggest cities - São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. It covers only 11% of the country but houses 43% of its population.
- The 4,655 mile-long coastline contains many reefs and bays, including 2,095 beaches. Fernando de Noronha is a volcanic island is a popular diving spot and also great for surfing.
The spectacular Iguaçu Falls can be found on the border between Brazil and Argentina.